The Black Death that occurred in the 14th century wiped out approximately half of the people. The scarcity of labor was encountered, and the poor couldn’t find work. This lets to revolt and repression of the government, leading to improvement of the poor people’s condition. The kings offered new taxes to the landowners, clergy, and merchants and it was refused by taxpayers. There was internal division in France which led to 100 years of war with England, but they ended up winning due to the patriotism of the people led by Joan of the Arc. There was a spread of power in England to get enough money, but Barons were unruly; hence they led to the War of Roses. The church of Medieval became corrupt, and the people became out of touch, making it unchangeable by anyone. In the moment of the Babylonian Captivity, the splitting of the Cardinal College brought two popes having both with different allies. However, the third was elected, and both were deposed, but they never gave up the power. Martin V reaffirmed the papal supremacy in 1414, but the fact of the moving corruption, simony, and also nepotism in the region increased significantly. The papacy was later turned to the “cultivated gentlemen” like painters, scholars, and architects.
Who were the ‘New Monarchs’ that ruled in Europe during the second half of the fifteenth century, how did they justify their ambitions, and what effect did their ‘New Monarchies’ have on political, social, and religious developments?
The Tudor dynasty started with Henry VII, and it went from 1485 to 1603 in England. The civil issues that led to the War of Roses were ended by Henry VII. He also imposed laws to the lords who had private armies. The handling of the disputes was done by the king. It became popular, but it was later condemned as a means of despotism. He appeared to be unpleasant but was considered as a good leader. The Valois line of the ruling was started by Louis XI in 1461 in France. Using war, inheritance, marriage, and intrigue, he was able to expand the borders past Paris. He developed the internal army that he used to subdue the nobles and suppress the brigands. He also imposed control on the clergy, and with the help of Pope Leo X, he rescinded a pragmatic sanction. By 1469 Spain was in two Kingdoms. Ferdinand ruled the Aragon, and Isabella ruled Castile. The country lucked judicial, political, and also administrative institutions. Marriage was a key aspect of joining the kingdoms, but it still possessed two different rulers, and there was no sense of union. Both rulers brought compulsory religious conformity, and thus they expelled all the Muslims and the Jews.
What were the principal issues addressed by the Peace of Westphalia?
The choice of the German religion has based on the Peace of Westphalia and the renewal of the Peace of Augsburg. This also brought the addition of Calvinism to Lutheranism and Catholicism as a form of acceptable faith. The Catholics claimed the territories by means of churches in 1552 after being abandoned, which was the Protestants’ victory. Then there was the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The Swiss Cantons and the united province were considered to be independent, while the Swiss, since the Dutch, were not part of the Empire. Sweden and France got part of the initial Empire. The region of Germany was divided into 300 independent sovereign nations that permitted them to negotiate an external trade that was free from the rule of the empire. This was important in the elimination of political power. They became independent from the “Superior rule.” The new laws, army recruitment, payment of taxes, declaration of war, and rectification of peace were not allowed without the consent of all state rulers. A third of Germany’s population was lost in the 30 years of war, and a lot of it became looted and wrecked. Therefore, Europe was considered as a big group of sovereignties of every other, and the free acts of the state diplomacy
Discuss the importance of the Italian Renaissance for the development of Western civilization, comparing and contrasting it to the Renaissance that took place in Europe north of the Alps.
The new way of thinking about the world was led by the Italian Renaissance. This involved every area of the culture that is neither scientific nor theological, but it concerns the moral and the civic questions that ask what a man should do in the reflection of the matters of style, taste, personal character, property, education, and also decorum. It’s a renaissance in Italy that the first pure secular attitude appeared first. All the towns in Italy were independent states, and some of them were led by the local despot, while the others were individual republics. They grew in trade, and the merchants made the chances to increase commerce. Florence was run by the Medici family, starting from the wool trade to a wealthy banker under the power of Lorenzo the Magnificent.
Humanism came into existence where a man was not considered to be a frail creature but rather shaped the world and brought success in everything. In the admiration of the classical styles and forms, the humanist demonstrated it in classic Latin. The advancement in the school brought the separation of the students based on their skills and age, making an efficient educational system. The City stated didn’t join together, and thus war was common. The attempt of Machieveli to convince the Italians to come together was considered cynical. Due to poor unity, Spain and Germany took Rome in 1527.
However, outside Italy was different since there were strong religious sentiments to deepen the understanding of the Christianity humanism studies like the Hebrew, Latin, and also Greek texts. The bankers controlled a larger amount of the capital in Germany, thus making it an economic center. Science also advanced, like Johanna Muller, who had a mathematical conception of a universe, and astronomy was with Nicholas Copernicus. The Mysticism illustrated that a human being’s soul could be able to communicate with God directly. Thus they didn’t need any sentiment, reason, or word, but they could not go against the church since they were all seeking a more deep religion without the presence of the church. The Medieval thoughts were later ridiculed by Erasmus of Rotterdam. He had a proper understanding of the need for change, but it was through education and not through power. He wrote the new edition of the Old Testament in Latin and Greek with somehow fewer mistakes. The Christians were encouraged by him to make use of the New Testament so that they could improve their behaviors.
During the second half of the 16th century, Spain, under the rule of Charles V followed by his son Phillip II, was the most powerful kingdom in Europe militarily and economically, but by the early 1600s had been eclipsed by England and the Netherlands. Discuss the events that led to this situation, explaining how they were part of an international politico-religious struggle.
There was the inheritance of some of the provinces and towns by Phillip II during his time of Spanish rule. Some of the inherited towns and provinces include Netherlands, Naples, Milan, Portugal, America, and Burgundy. He had a belief that the Spanish was the leader of the European Catholics and this made him a staunch Catholic. However, he was unable to gain the trust of the other nations concerning religion. The provinces of the Netherland and the other Low Countries went against Phillip II the moment 200 nobles from different provinces decided to found a league that would keep in check the influence of foreign Spain. They needed to withdraw from the Spanish Inquisition from the Netherlands, but it was denied. This led to the destruction of the 400 churches as they were revolting, this made Phillip II to sent the inquisition in. Many of the people were sentenced to death, and new taxes were levied while the nobles lost their states. This brought unity among people of all classes against Spain.
England also joined the war and allied with Netherland so that they could protect their interests. They became a wall. Protestants emerged against Spain all over Europe. To respond to the joining of the English in the fight, Phillip II sent the Spanish Armada which was destroyed in the English channel. Later in 1609, there was an agreement on the Twelve Years Truce leading to the separation of the seven Northern provinces (Dutch) and ten southern provinces (Spanish Netherland). All the Protestants went to the north while the Catholics went to the south. The prosperity of Spain continued for half a century, but it declined politically and economically due to the death of Phillip II. They survived on the shipment from the Indies as the unity of the Spanish kingdoms falls apart.
The English confidence increased due to the end outcomes of the struggle. Also, English started developing unity within them. As time passed, Spain was losing a bigger number of its population as they were driving the Muslims from the country. The number of aristocrats who believed that they were above the task that is required to be done also increased. Therefore these are what piloted to the fall of the Spanish kingdoms.