Worldwide nutritional scarcity is common. Nutritional deficiency is because of the increased rate of poverty and as well as due to food insecurities. Shortage of nutrients is continuously growing. Nutrient dearth includes food deficient in micronutrients whereas macronutrients. Micronutrients are such nutrient which is required in small amount while macronutrients are those nutrients that are needed to body in large amounts. In developing and economically deprived countries deficiencies of nutrients are increasing day by day. Due to these deficiencies rate of disease are also raised. For controlling the shortage of nutrients, food fortification technique is involved. Fortification is techniques through these essential nutrients are added in food. Food fortification is defined as the process in which intentionally addition of essential nutrients takes place. Essential nutrients either can be vitamins, minerals and trace elements. These nutrients are added to specific food for enhancing the nutritional value of food. Food fortification is highly effective for the reducing malnutrition. It is served as a tool for addressing the global population deficiencies such as rickets the disease of bone that is caused due to vitamin D deficiency. This disease can be controlled by the consumption of milk which is fortified with vitamin D. the purpose of food fortification is combat the shortage of nutrients with the addition of nutrients in an appropriate range. The primary objective of fortification should only provide health benefits to people and it should not has any harmful effect on public health (Chandrapala et al. 88-98).
Food fortification is a critical role in preventing and controlling micronutrient malnutrition. Nowadays Food fortification is likely to have played a critical role in the current nutritional health scenario. Food fortification method is thought as effective interventions among the public for preventing dietary deficiencies. That is why public health scientists and policymakers have developed guidelines to assist the design, implementation, and evaluation of food fortification programs. The shortage of essential dietary food can be controlled by, dietary diversification, supplementation, and food fortification have been adopted. So, Food fortification is considered a long term and sustainable strategy in the present scenario. The government mainly regulates fortification of specific nutrients to food to ensure public health. Now a day’s fortification common examples milk fortification of vitamin D, Iron addition in cereals and as well as adding of folic acid to flour (Samaniego-Vaesken, Alonso-Aperte and Varela-Moreiras 148-153).
Fortification technique has been identified as one of the best cost-effective nutritional intervention available. Fortified foods are different because there is an addition of essential nutrients which enhance the value of food and improve the health benefits by meeting the body requirements. Discretionary fortification means the adding of some vitamins and minerals by few firm for marketing purpose only; it is not for point of the public health concern. Discretionary fortification is adding up of mineral deposits and vitamins to the food which is not necessarily. There is no advantage of that food because due to consumption of that food replace the healthier food consumption. Use of discretionary food leads toward the harmful effect, e.g., consumption of such food that contains high fat, high calories they point toward obesity problem and as well as high blood pressure and depression as well.
Sufficient amount of certain minerals and vitamins are needed in the balanced diet to perform the physical activities, to maintain health and to prevent disease due to lack of essential dietary nutrients. Deficiency of vitamin A is responsible for the cause of night blindness mostly in children. Whereas consumption of more nutrient than body requirements also cause severe problems .n other words more consumption lead towards toxic effect, e.g., too much use of vitamin A during pregnancy can cause severe abnormalities in fetus sometimes lead towards abortion; Excessive zinc consumption instead of immune system stimulation it suppresses it. High consumption of niacin symptoms ranges from blurred vision to severe liver toxicity (“Health Effects From Excess Vitamins And Minerals”).
An important step is that first of all develop food which is environmentally friendly, maintain agriculture and apply good animal husbandry method and improve cross breeding. By implementing these strategies not only water and environment will improve it also put a positive impact on health as well. Fortification programs as the country nutrition strategy are supported by world health organization (WHO), United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) and (GAIN) Global Alliance for Improved.
Few daily used products that are consumed on a regular basis include; Cereal, bread, milk, salt, margarine, butter, snacks, and juices. Deficiency of iodine is fulfilled by the use of iodized salt. Iodized salt is also fortified salt with iodine which prevents goiter and as well as lack of iodine lead towards mental retardation, goiter and many other abnormalities (“List Of Fortified Foods”). Snacks and orange juice contain calcium. Margarine and some butter they are fortified with sterol, and they control cholesterol level. Vitamin D deficiency leads to rickets, osteoporosis and cancer disorder. The consumption of fortified milk which contains vitamin A and D are responsible for controlling such disease. Cereal and bran bread are mostly fortified with vitamins B and iron, e.g., Nestle breakfast cereal is fortified with five vitamins and two minerals (WHO/FAO Expert Consultation”). These are the list of nutrition value and as well ingredients of product, cereal, salt and bran bread.
(“Ingredients List Of Fortified Dawn Bread – Google Search”)
Nutritional and ingredient claims, a name of ingredients are mentioned clearly. Labeling, the presentation is specific to the products. Accuracy, clarity of products is based on scientific evidence.
Food fortification technique is proved to be the successful strategy because it makes regularly used food more notorious without disturbing the daily consumer habits. The main objective of fortified food is to supply such food which is notorious whereas it appropriately fulfills the nutritional deficiency. The consumption of food which has nutritional value it prevents the disease, make a strong immune system and improve cognitive development and productivity. Most common fortified food now a day’s includes; wheat, rice, flour and maize flour. Essential mineral and vitamins can be obtained by taking balanced diet. Such food consumed because
- To prevent the nutritional anemia
- Increase the rate of productivity
- Reduce the risk of congenital disabilities of brain and spine
- It is also responsible for the improvement of progress
- Physical activity and the healthy diet are necessary for a healthy lifestyle.
- Eat proper or balanced diet for maintaining physical activities of the body.
- Food which is notorious should be consumed instead of taking supplements. When supplements are consumed one should keep in mind adequate amount should be consumed.
- When introduce fortification programs take care of that prevent overdose consumption.
- Assure that fortified food has more health benefits and has less health risk.
- In food fortification, complementary country-specific guidelines should be used and implemented.
- Implementation of such guidelines put the positive effect on the country economy.
- It also encourages proper food techniques to overcome the deficiency of nutrient in food.
- Campaign and programs are carefully performed to assure the proper use of these fortified food