Public Health Policies

Public Health Policies
27 mn read

Abstract

One of the major public health issues in nations around the world is the increasing rate of childhood obesity, alongside lacking of health unawareness in parents and peer groups. Over the past decade, obesity has increased in children and adolescents. Many an intervention have been associated with obesity and overweight in children, and a number of bad consequences of physical, psychological, and social nature related to childhood obesity have been anticipated. Public health officials and social institutions have been looking for the factors that cause childhood obesity, and intervention strategies of various types are used for the prevention and control of these causes. Communication and information on health issues at the public level in society is an important concern to the government and policymakers of a nation. Official institutions, apart from academics, are putting efforts into obtaining research-based data for valid and helpful data to be used as background knowledge while devising public health policies. This manuscript aims to serve the purpose of a systematic review of validated studies on the social health phenomenon of overweight and obesity in children between 4-10 years of age. The findings suggest childhood obesity can be controlled at the public level by applying effective interventions such as nutrition practices, increased physical activities, and health education in parents, teachers, peers, and children themselves.

Introduction

“Public Health” is a multidisciplinary topic for research and scientific studies. It has been a concern to scholars from a number of fields such as social sciences, psychology, medicine, public administration, technology, and education and communication disciplines.

This proposal is anchored on analysing the role played by health education in reducing obesity in children aged between 4 and 10 years. Health education encompasses a variety of factors, including communication skills, cultural/social influence, decision-making ability, and so on but is not limited to functional health literacy. Demonstration of the relationship between childhood obesity and health education has been provided in several empirical studies (better health, increased participation rate in school, reduced obesity, among others) among children. However, this protocol will demonstrate the rationale for the study and outline the aim and objectives of the investigation. In preparing this proposal, a methodical approach has been followed to clarify the inclusion and exclusion of the findings. In order to assist in the execution of the database search, the PICO format has been used as a number of sources have been searched to find relevant articles. Chosen articles have been critically appraised to find relevant and emerging themes. Finally, the events discussed in this proposal will be concluded along with the researcher’s recommendations.

Chapter 1.

Background of the study

Currently, United Kingdom has a comprehensive policy on alcohol and tobacco that is considered one of the most well-devised policies on health issues. Cairney investigated some of the important factors involved in the successful public health campaigns on the consummation of alcohol and analyses the hurdles causing problems to movement in the pursuit of stringent alcohol control. Both alcohol and tobacco are legal addictions in the United Kingdom. Scholars from the medical science and public health disciplines investigate the dangers associated with the use of these both, gather evidence, and advocate the policies that are designed to control alcohol and cigarette consumption and the health hazards associated with it (Cairney, 2014).

Public health groups are more concerned with investigating about extent to which public health policies are contingent as solutions to the problem. They look for the positive relationship of solutions provided by the policies on the reduction of alcohol and cigarette. However, the response has been found weak or disproportionate to the problem by policies. Policy response may take decades to make it required proportion to the problem. Cairney’s investigations suggest that there is a gap between policy response towards alcohol and cigarette. UK health policies regarding alcohol and cigarette consumption are among the best around the world (Cairney et al, 2012).

The United Kingdom’s Department of Health (2009) has devised guidelines for the healthcare sector and the general public to protect the health of the young of the nation from 5-19 years old named as Healthy Child Programme. The HCP has provided recommendations on in what ways different social institutions like family, education and healthcare can put collective efforts to substantially improve the life chances of children and young of the nation between 5-19 years. HCP has also devised guidelines as in good practice framework for interventions and prevention services in the early years of kids. The Health Ministry conducted a survey in 2004 named “Every Child Matters,” in which young kids and adolescents identified essentials for their lives which became the foundation of the Healthy Child Programme. These five vitalities of children and adolescents’ lives are; to be healthy, safe, enjoy and achieve, make contributions to society and achieve economic good.

The principle of nonmaleficence in healthcare makes it obligatory to the concerns to cause and conduct no harm. This principle is considered important since the systemized healthcare practice exists. It has been advisable for healthcare professionals to act in a beneficence manner, but if in case that it is not possible, they are encouraged to do no harm at least. There is a thin line of difference between the two concepts, causing people to confuse these and consider them as one and the same thing. Nonmaleficence is a guideline that “one ought not to inflict evil or harm” (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013), whereas beneficence is about following the three principles “one ought to prevent evil or harm, one ought to remove evil or harm, one ought to do or promote good” (Beauchamp & Chidress, 2013).

Studies on parental and school awareness of health issues have shown that there is a greater need to formulate policies that are more contingent on the health and welfare of children and adolescents of the nation. The United Kingdom has given importance to the issue of public health and scholars from various fields are coming up with their perspectives and theories on public health based on scientific research. The existing substance of research suggests and fosters further ideas to be incorporated in future investigations of public health.

Rationale

Shockingly, 51 million children were suffering from obesity in 2014, which was only 35 million in 1990; this finding can be termed as an “exploding nightmare” (WHO, 2016). Many other studies have also found similar findings regarding childhood obesity, especially in children aged between 4 and 10 years.

Numerous interventions have a relationship with general public health and the obesity rate in children. Developed countries have focused on this area on development as young of the nations are a prime concerns. If the factors contributing to the increasing obesity rates in children are not addressed properly, they can further cause greater obesity in adults. Healthcare academics and professionals are putting efforts into finding the relationships between different factors with childhood obesity to provide background knowledge for the policymakers to better address the public health issues in society. This paper is an attempt to provide a systematic review of the existing research substance on the relationship between health education and childhood obesity.

Methodology

PICO is a structured format that is being used for the development of research questions based on four areas (Fink, 2013). The following PICO format has been used in the case of this proposal for choosing the research question: “does health education help to reduce obesity in children aged between 4 and 10 years?”

P= Population I= Intervention C= Comparison O= Outcomes
Children aged between 4 and 10 years Health Education Not Available Preventing Childhood Obesity

 

Several combinations of keywords have been used to find the most relevant research articles. Most relevant research articles, especially on health education and childhood obesity, have been searched to find health education and its role in reducing obesity in children. So as to do so, several bibliographic databases including Medline, CINAHL, Ovid, and PubMed, have been searched to find articles using the PICO format. Boolean operators, including AND, NOT, and OR, has been used to connect keywords and widen the search results.

Article 1

The Association between health literacy of parents and children in relation to obesity has been examined in this study. Health literacy has been measured by using Newest Vital Sign (NVS). This study has used an anonymous cross-sectional survey to obtain data, and multivariable logistic regression has been used to analyze the association. A survey of 239 child-parent dyads indicated that 51% of the child was male and 27% was obese. In the case of children, parents with higher NVS score tend to have obese children, while parents with lower NVS score tend to have low obese children. According to the findings of this study, parents’ health literacy has a significant association with children’s obesity. Practically, this result implies that limited health literacy should be addressed while developing strategies for reducing the obesity rates among children.

Article 2

In the United States, more than 17% of the child and youth are obese. Analyzing obesity among children and its trend between 2003 and 2012 was the purpose of this investigation. This study was a cross-sectional study and surveyed more than 9,100 participants from 2011-12. Childhood obesity has been defined by the BMI index. Results of this study indicate that 16.9% of children were obese and had high body weight which was statistically significant as well. However, no significant change from 2003-04 through 2011-12 in obesity among children has been observed. All in all, obesity prevalence has remained high, thus, continuous surveillance is required to be increased.

Article 3

This study has estimated the obesity rate among children and its prevalence. Children and adolescents aged between 2 and 9 years have been examined in this study. Similar to Article 2, this study has also used a cross-sectional approach, which defines children’s obesity as a body mass index (BMI). A Survey of 40,780 children and adolescents indicated that, in 2011-14, the prevalence of obesity among children was about 17%, and extreme obesity was about 5.8%. For children aged between 5 and 10 years, in 1988-94, obesity among children was 113%, while in 2007-08, it was 19.6%. The obesity rate among children remained unchanged in 2013-14. However, the results in this nationally representative research indicate further intervention is required to increase health education for reduced the obesity rates among children.

Article 4

This study focused on the national incidence of childhood obesity among elementary-school children aged between 4 and 10 years. This study was a longitudinal study on 7,738 participants who were in kindergarten between 1998 and 2007. Results of this study indicated that 12.4% of the participants were obese; however, it has been reported that obesity incidence on yearly basis has decreased from 5.4% to 1.7%. This study concluded that obsessed children require more attention from parents and teachers to overcome the problem.

Article 5

This study has been performed in collaboration with WHO to observe the link between childhood obesity and health literacy. This was a cross-sectional study on children aged less than 10 years old. Results of this study indicated that children with high obesity were partly due to parents’ low health literacy. This study suggested that both child and parent must have health literacy in order to have reduced obesity among children less than 10 years of age.

Article 6

Healthcare ethics and bioethics both terms substitute each other in public health. Bioethics in the field of healthcare is an advent of the 1900s that deals with the moral standards and issues related to healthcare services. (Karen,) preventable, serious, and adverse kinds of errors should be reported not only to patients but to the organizational reporting systems (IOM, 2000).

Invoke of therapeutic privilege gives doctors, physicians a hand in withholding the reports of errors from patients if, on a medical basis, they think that disclosure of such information can potentially cause harm to the patients in any way as the patient may be emotionally drained, unstable, and depressed (Beauchamp & Childress, 2013). The information of a patient’s condition is ought to be kept confidential unless it may be used for the patient’s benefit as per healthcare and the patient gives consent to releasing it (Karen).

Health care organizations and agencies adopt the most advisable practice and best applicable standardized care for patients to minimize any potential harm to them. Authorities and regulatory bodies act as guidelines and oversight procedures developers for healthcare agencies in order to avoid violations and maintain standardized healthcare practice in society (Karen,).

Article 7

Zilanawala and co-researchers in 2013 attempted to investigate the risk of obesity in childhood comparatively in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The interventions used were the ethnic classifications hand in the rate of obesity in both nations’ children of five years. They obtained data from overweight five years old children from “Early longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort,” and “millennium Cohort Study” and examined those. They basically investigated the racial disparities’ relationship with Body Mass Index compared to normal weight. The factors and variables of the study were social, demographical, cultural, and family to indicate the disparities. The research found that in the United Kingdom, Black Children Caribbean had a higher ratio of odds of overweight and obesity at 1.7, Pakistani children had lower odds ratio as in 0.60, and Black Africans had the highest potential odd ratio of 1.40. In comparison, the United States had no ethnic disparities related to obesity odds in children, given that the interventions model was fully adjusted.

Article 8

Baillie & Black (2015) talked about the sic Cs of caring developed as a result of widespread consultation exercise held by the Department of Health in England investigating the “values of nursing”, “ values for nurses” published in “ Comparison in Practice: Nursing, Midwifery and Care Staff: Our Vision and Strategy” in 2012. The vision advocated the incorporation of six caring values into nursing practice. Baillie & Black explored these six values; Care is the prime business of healthcare organizations in society, and the provision of care help individuals and the community as a whole to improve health. Caring is the definition of nursing and nurses’ work. People in seek of such care expect it to be serving them rightly throughout their treatments during the span of life. Compassion refers to the way of delivering care based on the relationship of respect, empathy, and dignity. The factor of intelligence in the provision of nursing care is also embodied in the vision revolving around the idea of how people perceive care from healthcare professionals. Competence refers to having the required knowledge, skills, and delivery methods along with an ability to understand the meaning of care to an individual as per health needs and also an understanding of caring roles. Communication is a central concept in the provision of effective healthcare based on relationships of empathy. To understand the problem and needs of patient “no decision about me without me”, it is important to have effective listening skills and communicate his “care” to a satisfactory level. The key to efficacy in the workplace is communication. Courage involves the implementation of the right practice of care for the individual, the innovative approach, and personal strength to take a stance for righteousness. Commitment means the ultimate dedication to the professional care without ambiguities and diversion. Commitment builds strength to meet the challenges at the workplace and in the field overall (Baillie & Black, 2015).

Article 9

Researching health communication focuses on the relationship between the communication of health-related issues and the delivery of health education and healthcare to individuals. Socio-psychological work on the ideas of diffusion of health-related issues and matters through mass-mediated messages appeared along with the advent of communication technologies and channels in contemporary society (Katz, Coleman & Menzel, 1966). Scholars from medicine and nursing fields are more interested in investigating the interactive communication between the health care provider and receiver and such studies have always been published under the head of health communication, often in journals such as “Patient education and Counselling”. In recent decades, a couple of new focus areas have gained a substantial place in health communication research; projection of health-related issues in media content and the role of communication technologies in the dissemination of health issues. The first focus area is how mass media, both print and broadcast, including social media, present and project health-related issues, and the second area centralizes the research on information technology and health care technology in public health (Bowling, 2014). Analyzing the media campaign on public health and their success or failure is another dimension of research focus in the healthcare sector and mass communication. Early research bodies on health communication tend to depict not a very often use of quantitative methods in investigations rather, they were mostly using the qualitative analysis methods. Over the decades, however, health communication investigations have adopted a more sophisticated approach. Recent researches are extensions of the earlier studies or are built upon theories presented by those. Hypotheses developed recently are even narrower and focused on the respective subject of study, and factorial design of investigations is more in vogue as compared to the early studies that analyzed a single variable at one time. Methods of the study do matter in the production of accurate results. The method used in a particular study shows our specific understanding of the health communication topic, is apparently a sense-making instrument, determinant of data type related to health communication and determinant of possible knowledge details (Bowling, 2014). The use of the quantitative analysis techniques in research studies helps researchers to minimize the influence of personal perceptions’ influence on the investigations; however assumptions are present underlying the conceptual frameworks of the studies (Bowling, 2014).

Article 10

The overweight health phenomenon is prevailing in children under age in almost all countries around the world in an increasing manner. Renata et al. (2013) investigated the prevalence of obesity in school-going children between 6-11 years. The researcher and co-researchers took a sample of one hundred and nine schools and conducted a cross-sectional study. Alongside a sample of parents using 16,588 questionnaires, a survey was conducted. The study showed results that were contrary to the national average reported officially. The researchers concluded that only a moderate level of obesity prevails in the school-going children, and they further recommended that the phenomenon shall be monitored further for a raised level of awareness and provide participative knowledge to the policymakers for the development of prevention policies for the nation.

Article 11

Carnell and his co-researchers 2005 investigated the perception of overweight among parents of children between 3-5 years of age. They took a large sample of 564 parents and children from the United Kingdom. They obtained the demographics of children, their height, and weight. The results indicated increased odds of perceptions of overweight among parents as only 1.9 % of them had overweight children, and 17.1% of obese children were able to describe overweight. However, a few parents were worried about their overweight children’s chances of getting obese in the future. The researchers concluded that parents’ awareness of the phenomenon of being overweight was poor.

Research Methodology

Literature Search Strategies

Public health is a social phenomenon related to the health well-being of the individuals residing in the society and a multidisciplinary topic of research. A substantial body of research exists on the topic and researchers from a number of fields such as sociology, medicine, public administration, communication and information technology, and psychology have attempted investigations on the different aspects of the phenomenon. The vast and increasing range of research studies is there, and the new researchers to find the literature with the most relevant and helping material for the topic and research questions development. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between health education and the reduction of obesity in children between 4-10 years. Hence the researcher attempted to break down the topic into a number of possible terms that could fetch the relevant literature from the huge body of existing research in the field.

i). Search terms.

Public health phenomenon as a research topic incorporates a number of related variables that can be investigated by employing various research designs such as exploring relationships between the variables and the difference. The existing research can be reviewed using different terms and “terminology of public health,” distinguishing them into categories such as names of variables, number of variables, research methods used, research designs, population, and sample, etc. The terms used to search the literature on the proposed research topic were used as below.

The subject topic “Public Health” was searched for an understanding of the topic, and the variables of the present research topic were broken down into possible different arrangements such as “obesity in children”, and “obesity and Children” and were used to search the literature of the topic. The terms used to search the literature on the proposed research topic were used as below.

  • “Public Health”
  • “Obesity in Children”
  • “Obesity and Children”
  • “Health Education”
  • “Health education for Children”
  • “Government Policies in Children’s Health”
  • “Health Education in Schools

ii). Inclusion Criteria

The researcher developed fundamental criteria of inclusion for the search of relevant research previously conducted on the topic. The search to be done;

  • In English
  • About humans
  • About topics that are most relevant to the “Children’s health, public health, care, health education through mass communication, obesity in children below ten years of age and its relationship to obesity reduction.”
  • Assessment of every article consisting of the topic of research

Prevention policies by the government must include the additional criteria;

  • Evidently based on public health by the regulatory bodies
  • Background knowledge of research in the development of public policies
  • Policies particularly catering health of children under age
  • The research articles and systematic reviews included containing following additional criteria of inclusion
  • Systematic (scientific) research
  • Using either qualitative or/and quantitative methods of research
  • Involves public health education, and official policies on health and human subject.
  • Outcome measures of a known factors of public health

iii). Exclusion criteria.

“Public health” understandably can have a range of meanings associated with it as it is a broad concept involving various disciplines. Scholars have different views on the concept that constitutes “public health” as a term for an academic and professional research project. That makes it necessary for the researcher to derive exclusion criteria for the study design so that it be clear and narrowed down to the exact aim of the study. The inclusion and exclusion criteria of this research is exclusively for the present study and may not represent the views of professionals and scholars or any other on public health. The researcher recognizes that the development of these criteria is not a perfect science and is based on the researcher’s understanding of the topic. The following exclusion criteria have been derived for the present study.

Research published in any other language than English

Research published before 2005

iv). Relevant sources.

Statistics on public health-related issues and sources for obtaining are available increasingly on the internet. Many data sources, sorted neatly, are available to find the most relevant information to the research topic. Governmental studies and official data from practicing and academic scholars are considered the most reliable sources. The articles for this paper were searched to fulfill the requirements of the background knowledge, and the following relevant sources were used;

CDC Wonder

A very useful data source presenting a list of data sets on health-related issues. A collection of documents is there, including CDC Prevention guidelines, and such documents are presented in the form of a table of contents. Full-text articles can be searched through this data source.

HSRIC: Health services research Information Central

Health Services Research Information Central is a great source of data relevant to the health services field of practice and academics. It is a portal where internet links to the research resources such as reports, articles, and group discussions are provided. A massive body of health services research resources can be explored here to base further research and investigation into the public health field. Federal and non-federal data repositories, health statistics, surveys, and international resources are included in the portal.

Fast Stats

Instant access to the statistics on the topic of public health and its importance is available on this site, arranged alphabetically. A huge number of publications are available on the site that leads to more data sources, existing statistics, and relevant material containing web pages.

Minnesota Public Health Data Access

This is also a website portal that gives access to the data resources on a number of various public health topics, along with environmental topics. All the topics on which data is available are listed arrayed in alphabetical arrangement right on the home page for the ease of use of articles. A separate tab for access to the relevant topics is there such as environmental health topics, are all available under one tab, similarly th health behaviors, public health, and risk factors. Besides, the definitions of words are available to read at the hover of the mouse pointer, also, it shows the numbers for data in charts.

Child Health: World Health Organization

World Health Organization has huge data resources available on public health generally and child health specifically. Researchers can find an enormous number of data resources through World Health Organization’s data center.

Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health

The data resource Center for Child and Adolescents Health provides data resources on the topics of child health and adolescent health and healthcare.

NCBI.GOV

This website was very useful for the search for relevant sources for this paper; few most relevant links were obtained from this site to study the public health publications in the United Kingdom.

International Journal of Obesity

A couple of articles studied in the paper were obtained from the works listed in the International Journal of Obesity. This Journal also has a vast range of papers on the topic of obesity in children and adolescents.

v) Data Extraction

Data extraction from the selected data sources proved a challenging task for the paper. As the paper is a systematic review of literature, the standardized format of using a data extraction table was used for extracting the key relevant information from the studies reviewed.

Study Reviewed Design Setting and Participants Interventions Study objective Summary results
Chari & Warsh, 2014 Stratified sample, quantitative study Shool-aged children, stratified sample Parental health literacy Investigation of the relationship of parental health literacy and child and adolescent obesity Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with the parents; literacy on health
Pryor, 2015 Longitudinal study 2120 families raising children until 13years of age Risk factors To investigate if childhood overweight has an association with mental health in pre-adolescence age Ross-lagged links, the association between variables differed depending upon child development trajectory
Ogden, C., Carroll, M., Kit, B. and Flegal, K. (2014) Cross-sectional survey 40780 children and adolescents To investigate the prevalence of obesity among children over three years, 2011-2014 The obesity rate among children remained unchanged.
Ogden, C., Carroll, M., Kit, B. and Flegal, K. (2014) Longitudinal study 7738 kindergarten participants Attention from parents and teachers To investigate the prevalence of obesity among kindergarten children between 1998-2007 12.4% of participants were fat, however, obesity rate decreased over the years
Haynes, B. and Browne, N. (2016) Survey study N/A Childhood Obesity, Health Literacy, and the Newest Vital Sign Results of this study indicated that children with high obesity were partly due to parents’ low health literacy. This study suggested that both child and parent must have health literacy in order to have reduced obesity among children less than 10 years of age.
Renata et al., 2013 Cross-sectional survey study One hundred and nine schools Level of awareness among parents and schools on health issues Investigation of prevalence in 6-11-year-olds Only a moderate level of obesity prevailed among kids
Lobstein et al., 2015 Systematic review N/A overconsumption of food and low nutritional quality of food To analyze the level of obesity in children Obesity in United States and worldwide children has increased over the years
Carmel et al,. 2005 Survey study Parents and children from the United Kingdom Parents ‘ perception of overweight of children To assess the parents’ perception accuracy of overweight. 1.9 % of parents of overweight children and 17.1% of parents of children with obesity could describe the phenomenon of being overweight. The odds of perceptions were increased.
Zilanawala et al., 2015 Comparative quantitative study Overweight children of five years from the United Kingdom and the United States Racial/ethnic disparities To investigate ethnic disparities among the United Kingdom and the United States kids’ odds of overweight and obesity. The United Kingdom had more minority kids’ obesity odds, whereas the United States’ obesity was not related to ethnic/racial disparities.

Chapter 3.

The selected articles were studied to construct the present paper. The topic was broken down to search the relevant research material on public health specifically related to childhood and adolescent obesity. A number of interventions are associated with the obesity in children phenomenon of public health, and assessment of these interventions prove to be of complex nature and context-based, that demand for a programmatic, scientific approach for research. Not a single research approach may be considered enough efficient in the assessment of interventions related to childhood and adolescents obesity.

A variety of research designs were found in the existing literature, and the methods of research most often used were quantitative. The evaluation of the evidence is highly dependent on the criteria of assessment as per failure or success of the interventions. The current paper looked into the studies that were close to the topic and found that researchers have attempted a number of methods to come up with accurate results the studies. Survey articles used a quantitative approach, but some of them used a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Longitudinal studies especially used a high combo of research methods and analysis techniques as the studies were big and involved interventions demanding both qualitative and quantitative analysis for their assessment.

It is not always the use of research techniques applied to the interventions causing the failure of evidence; sometimes the interventions inherently are faulty. Study design wholly or solely is not adequate in determining the success or failure of public health interventions.

Chapter 4.

Studying and evaluating the given number of studies on public health issues especially related to kids and adolescents, is invaluable to research scholars as a systematic review of the literature. The evidence-based research has fostered a number of conceptual frameworks within which the research can be evaluated on the basis of its rigor and validity. However, there is developing acknowledgment that even evidence‐based rules from firmly controlled investigations, in a perfect world controlled by arbitrary tasks, may not be an adequate system to measure the majority of the data expected to outline a mediation suitable for a group of people.

How best to place evidence into powerful practice to accomplish a planned reduction of obesity has for quite some time been an issue of worry in inquiring about on damage field. Research‐to‐practice holes have dependably existed, and advance in this subject has been moderate. Variables that add to this issue incorporate passes in communication amongst analysts and specialists and administration conveyance issues, for example, absence of open mindfulness, poor financing, and a non‐supportive political air. Logical distributions of research on intercession viability, which don’t give data valuable to wide-scale general health spread, likewise add to the problem.1 Additional issue referred to by general health experts are that mediations might be too barely engaged, mind-boggling, troublesome, and expensive, or may not draw in or meet the apparent needs of the community.2,3,4 Once settled, anticipation programs must be managed with a satisfactory foundation and long‐term force, requiring significant asset venture. The articles studied in the present paper are one by one summarized below;

Article 1

The relationship between the health aptitude of parents and children in connection to obesity has been analyzed in this study. Health proficiency has been estimated by utilizing Newest Vital Sign (NVS). This study has utilized an unknown cross-sectional study to get information, and multivariable strategic relapse has been utilized to break down the affiliation. A review of 239 child-parent dyads showed that 51% of the child was male and 27% was large. If there should arise an occurrence of children, parents with higher NVS scores have a tendency to have large children, while parents with bringing down NVS scores have a tendency of low, stout children. As indicated by the discoveries of this study, parents’ health education has a critical relationship with children’s obesity. Basically, this outcome suggests that restricted health proficiency ought to be tended to while creating techniques for decreasing the obesity rates among children.

Article 2

In the United States, over 17% of the child and youth are hefty. Breaking down obesity among children and its pattern in the vicinity of 2003 and 2012 was the motivation behind this examination. This study was a cross-sectional study and overviewed in excess of 9,100 members in 2011-12. Childhood obesity has been characterized by BMI records. Aftereffects of this study demonstrate that 16.9% of children were fat and had high body weight which was measurably huge also. Be that as it may, no noteworthy change from 2003-04 through 2011-12 in obesity among children has been watched. All things considered, obesity pervasiveness has stayed high; along these lines, ceaseless observation is required to be expanded.

Article 3

The researchers in this investigative study have assessed the obesity rate among children and its predominance. Children and teenagers matured in the vicinity of 2 and 9 years have been analyzed in this study. Like Article 2, this study has additionally utilized a cross-sectional approach, which characterized children’s obesity as a weight record (BMI). A study of 40,780 children and youths showed that, in 2011-14, the commonness of obesity among children was around 17%, and outrageous obesity was around 5.8%. Children matured in the vicinity of 5 and 10 years, in 1988-94, obesity among children was 113%, while in 2007-08 it was 19.6%. The obesity rate among children stayed unaltered in 2013-14. Be that as it may, the outcomes in this broadly illustrative research demonstrate promote mediation is required to expand health training for diminished obesity rate among children.

Article 4

This study concentrated on the national occurrence of childhood obesity among primary school children matured in the vicinity of 4 and 10 years. This study was a longitudinal study on 7,738 members who were in kindergarten in the vicinity of 1998 and 2007. Consequences of this study demonstrated that 12.4% of the members were fat; in any case, it has been accounted for that obesity occurrence on a yearly premise has diminished from 5.4% to 1.7%. This study reasoned that fixated children require more consideration from parents and instructors to beat the issue.

Article 5

This study has been performed in a joint effort with WHO to watch the connection between childhood obesity and health education. This was a cross-sectional study on children matured under 10 years of age. Aftereffects of this study demonstrated that children with high obesity were halfway because of parents’ low health education. This study proposed that both child and parent must have health proficiency so as to have lessened obesity among children under 10 years old.

Article 6

Healthcare morals and bioethics are the two terms that substitute each other in general health. Bioethics in the field of healthcare is a coming of the 1900s that arrangements with the ethical norms and issues identified with healthcare administrations. (Karen,) preventable, genuine, and unfriendly sort of blunders ought to be accounted for by patients as well as by the authoritative revealing frameworks (IOM, 2000). Conjure of helpful benefit gives specialists, and doctors a hand on withholding the reports of mistakes from patients if on the therapeutic premise they feel that revelation of such data can conceivably make hurt the patients in any case as the patient might be sincerely depleted, flimsy and discouraged (Beauchamp and Childress, 2013). The data of a patient’s condition is should be kept classified unless it might be utilized for the patient’s advantage according to healthcare and the patient gives assent on discharging it (Karen).

Health mind associations and offices embrace the most fitting practice, and best material institutionalized administered to patients to limit any potential mischief to them. Experts and administrative bodies go about as rule and oversight systems designers for healthcare offices so as to dodge infringement and keep up institutionalized healthcare rehearse in the general public (Karen, 2014).

Article 7

Zilanawala and co-analysts in 2013 endeavored to research the danger of obesity in childhood nearly in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The intercessions utilized were the ethnic characterizations deliver a rate of obesity in the two countries’ children of five years. They acquired information of overweight five years of age children from “Early longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort” and “thousand years Cohort Study” and analyzed those. They essentially examined the racial differences’ association with Body Mass Index similar to the typical weight. The components and factors of the study were social, demographical, social, and family to demonstrate the aberrations. The exploration found that in the United Kingdom, Black Children Caribbean had a higher proportion of chances of overweight and obesity at 1.7, Pakistani children had brought down chances proportion as in 0.60, and Black Africans had the most noteworthy potential odd proportion of 1.40. In examination, the United States had no ethnic inconsistencies identified with obesity chances in children, given that intercessions display completely balanced.

Article 8

Baillie and Black (2015) discussed the sic Cs of minding created as a result of across-the-board conference practice held by the Department of Health in England examining the “benefits of nursing”, ” values for medical caretakers” distributed in ” Comparison in Practice: nursing, nursing and Care Staff: Our Vision and Strategy” in 2012. The vision supported the joining of six mindings esteems into nursing practice. Baillie and Black investigated these six esteems; Care is the prime business of healthcare associations in the general public, and the arrangement of care help people and group as entire to enhance health. Minding is the meaning of nursing and attendants’ work. Individuals in looking for such care anticipate that it will serve them properly all through their medicines amid the traverse of life. Sympathy alludes to the method for conveying care in light of the relationship of regard, compassion, and nobility. The factor of insight in the arrangement of nursing care is additionally epitomized in the vision spinning around the possibility of how individuals see care from healthcare experts. Capability alludes to having the required information, aptitudes, and conveyance techniques alongside a capacity to comprehend the importance of care to a person according to health needs and furthermore a comprehension of minding parts. Correspondence is a focal idea in the arrangement of compelling healthcare in view of connections of sympathy. To comprehend the issue and needs of patient “no choice about me without me”, it is imperative to have viable listening abilities and impart him “give it a second thought” to an agreeable level. The way to adequacy in the working environment is through correspondence. Fearlessness includes the execution of the right routine with regards to wanting to the individual, the imaginative approach, and individual quality to take a position for honesty. Responsibility implies a definitive devotion to the calling care without ambiguities and redirection. Duty fabricates quality to address the difficulties in the work environment and in the field in general (Baillie and Black, 2015).

Article 9

Looking into the health interventions associated with correspondence of health-related issues and the education of health training and healthcare to people. Socio-mental work on the thoughts of dissemination of health-related issues and matters through mass intervened messages showed up alongside the appearance of technological advancements and diverted in contemporary society (Katz, Coleman, and Menzel, 1966). Researchers from pharmaceutical and nursing fields are keener on examining the intuitive correspondence between the health mind supplier and recipient and such investigations have dependably been distributed under the head of health correspondence frequently in diaries, for example, “Persistent training and Counseling”. In the current decades, two or three new concentration zone have increased generous place in health correspondence explore; projection of health-related issues in media content, and the part of correspondence innovations in the spread of health issues. To begin with, the center territory is how broad communications, both print and communicate, including web-based social networking, present and task health-related issues and the second region brings together the exploration of data innovation and health mind innovation in general health (Bowling, 2014). Breaking down the media crusade on general health and their prosperity or disappointment is another measurement of the research centers in the healthcare division and mass correspondence. Early research body on health correspondence has a tendency to delineate not an all-the-time utilization of quantitative techniques in examinations. Rather, they were generally utilizing subjective investigation strategies. Throughout the decades, be that as it may, health correspondence examinations have received a more refined approach. Late explores are expansions of the prior examinations or are based upon hypotheses exhibited by those. Theories grew as of late are much smaller and concentrated on separate subjects of study and factorial outlines of examinations are more in vogue when contrasted with the early investigations that broke down a single variable at one time. Techniques for the study do make a difference in the creation of exact outcomes. The technique utilized as a part of a specific study demonstrates our particular comprehension of the health correspondence.

Article 10

The overweight health phenomenon is winning in children under age in all nations around the globe in an undeniably way. Renata et al. (2013) explored the pervasiveness of obesity in school-going children between 6-11 years. The analyst and co-scientists took an example of one hundred and nine schools and directed a cross-sectional study. Nearby on an example of parents utilizing 16,588 polls, a review was directed. The study indicated comes about that were in opposition to the national normal revealed formally. The scientists reasoned that an exclusive direct level of obesity wins in the school-going children and they additionally prescribed that the phenomenon might be screen assist for a raised level of mindfulness and give participative information to the arrangement creators for the advancement of anticipation strategies for the country.

Article 11

Carnell and his co-specialists in 2005 researched the impression of being overweight among parents of children between 3-5 years old. They took a substantial example of 564 parents and children from the United Kingdom. They got the socioeconomics of children, their stature, and their weight. The outcomes showed expanded chances of the impression of being overweight among parents as just 1.9 % of them have overweight children, and 17.1% of stout children could depict overweight. In any case, a couple of a number of parents were stressed over their overweight children’s odds of getting stout in the future. The scientists inferred that parents’ mindfulness on the phenomenon of being overweight was poor.

Right now, the United Kingdom has an exhaustive approach to liquor and tobacco that is viewed as a standout amongst the most all-around conceived strategies on health issues. Cairney explored a portion of the critical components associated with the effective general health crusades on the fulfillment of liquor and examinations the obstacles making issues development in the quest for stringent liquor control. Both liquor and tobacco are legitimate addictions in the United Kingdom. Researchers from the restorative science and general health disciplines examine the risks related to the utilization of these both, assemble evidence, and promote the arrangements that are intended to control liquor and cigarette utilization and the health dangers related to it (Cairney, 2014).

General health bunches are more worried about examining the degree to which the general health arrangements are unforeseen as answers for the issue. They search for the positive relationship of arrangements given by the strategies on the lessening of liquor and cigarette. Be that as it may, the reaction has been discovered to be feeble or lopsided towards the issue approaches. Strategy reaction may take a very long time to make its expected extent of to issue. Cairney’s examinations propose that there is a hole between arrangement reaction towards liquor and cigarette. UK health approaches with respect to liquor and cigarette utilization are among the best far and wide (Cairney et al, 2012).

The United Kingdom’s Department of Health (2009) has contrived rules for the healthcare segment and overall population to ensure the health of the youth of the country from 5-19 years old, named as Healthy Child Program. The HCP has furnished with the proposals that in what ways distinctive social establishments like family, instruction and healthcare can put aggregate endeavors to considerably enhance life odds of child and youth of the country between 5-19 years. HCP has additionally concocted rules as in great practice system for intercessions and anticipation benefits in the early years of children. The Health Ministry led a review in 2004 named “Each Child Matters,” in which youthful children and teenagers recognized the basics of their lives which turned into the establishment of a Healthy Child Program. These five vitalities of children and young people’s lives are; to be healthy, well-being, appreciate and accomplish, make commitments to the general public and gain economic success.

The rule of nonmaleficence in healthcare makes it compulsory for the worries to cause and direct no damage. This guideline is viewed as imperative since the systemized healthcare rehearse exists. It has been fitting for healthcare experts to act in a helpful way, yet in the event that it isn’t conceivable, they are urged to make no mischief in any event. There is a thin line of distinction between the two ideas, making individuals confound these and think about them as one and a similar thing. Nonmaleficence is a rule that “one should not perpetrate shrewdness or damage” (Beauchamp and Childress, 2013), though helpfulness is tied in with following the three standards “one should avoid underhandedness or hurt, one should evacuate malice or mischief, one should do or advance great” (Beauchamp and Chidress, 2013).

Conclusion

Public health has attracted scholars from various fields, and a huge body of research has been established in this area. A number of public health phenomena associated with social science, psychology, medicine, education, communication and information, and public administration have been studied and investigated. Research provides a great deal of help to social and official concerns of public health. Obesity in children has become a public health crisis around the world, and effective interventions are associated with it as prevention and control strategies. Present systematic review attempted to review the government documents and research investigations on the topic. It is concluded that there are a number of causes found in the evidence giving rise to childhood obesity, but several interventions applied at the public level by government and social establishments can help greatly in the prevention and control of obesity in children and adolescents. Basic and extended knowledge of health issues in parents and peers is greatly important to reduce or eliminate the causes and prevent the consequences. Studies reviewed suggest that there is a gap between practice and research suggestions as to educating the parents, teachers, and other social peers on the subject of overweight, its causes, and consequences.

Parents are found to be least aware of the overweight and obesity illness in children; the majority of them perceive it as either wrong or normal health. They are also unaware of the effects of obesity on a child’s mental health and growth, self-esteem, behavioral modes, and social relationships with their fellow kids in schools and playgrounds. Children themselves are not aware that they are suffering from a certain kind of illness, that is, obesity. Studies also suggest the use of effective communication strategies at the public level to raise awareness level on health issues. Mass-mediated education through effective channels and technology as per the needs of communities and social sectors is an enormous potential intervention strategy that can raise the health education levels in society. The systematic review help formulate the research questions for further studies.

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